The seventh of the 2020 CSSSB Online Discussion Series was held on Monday, June 1, at 7pm BST (2pm EST/11am PST). Assistant Prof Jason Von Ehrenkrook and CSSSB’s Prof James Crossley discuss the shape-shifting use of the ‘Bible’ in American politics, especially in the era from FDR to LBJ, with a few comments on Trump too.
The Bible and Political Thought Conference was held at Aula Magna of the Pontifical Biblical Institute (Rome), on September 27-28, 2018.
Early Jewish communities considered themselves governed by divine law revealed in the Torah of
Moses. This political function of the Mosaic law is grounded in the Pentateuch itself, which narrates
the origins of Israel and the people’s constitution in their covenant with God at Mount Sinai. Early
Christians considered themselves living in the ‘kingdom of God’, which brought them in conflict
with Roman emperors’ claims to divine veneration. When Roman emperors were themselves
Christians, however, they were soon portrayed as new Davids and Solomons, a tradition continued
by medieval kings. Biblical narratives were frequently invoked when nationalisms arose in the 16th17th centuries, e.g., in the Netherlands, Scotland or England, claiming the respective ‘nation’ to be
a divinely chosen people like Israel – a historical development that could be called, with Philip
Gorski, ‘the Mosaic Moment’. The early modern political reception of the Bible is a climax in a
complex genealogy of biblical political thought and its reception over more than two millennia. This
conference will explore the political dimension of the Bible in exemplary themes from its emergence
in the world of the ancient Near East to the present day.
Thursday, September 27
08:30-09:15 Eckart Otto (LMU Munich): Athens and Jerusalem. A Comparison of the Political
Theory of Plato’s NOMOI and the Hebrew Torah
The legal corpora of the Torah in the Covenant Code in Exodus 20-23 and the Book of Deuteronomy
and Plato’s political philosophy of the Politeia, Politicos and Nomoi aimed at answering the question
of how to keep societies together in Israel and Greece. These societies were in danger of falling to
pieces, especially because of unsolved social tensions. Both groups of texts developed strategies of
how to organize the economy, minimizing the tensions between poor and rich and limiting the
political power of officials.
09:15-10:00 Wolfgang Oswald (University of Tübingen): The Literary Compositions of the Hebrew
Bible as Documents of Ancient Political Thought. An Overview and a Tentative Synthesis
Most books of the Hebrew Bible have Israel as their main subject. How did Israel come into being?
How was Israel organized? Who was part of Israel? Who was in power? Some literary works in the
Hebrew Bible accept monarchy as the traditional form of government and merely discuss the
legitimacy of dynasties. Others restrict the power of the king while some even deny the legitimacy
of monarchy at all. And still others imagine an ideal king to come. Some literary works in the
Hebrew Bible do not show awareness or acceptance of written laws. Others, on the contrary, are
constitutions defining a society based on written laws. Still others accept written laws but qualify
their validity. What was the role of the people? Were they merely subjects of the king or did they
make up the popular assembly, i.e. the legislative body? Who was the sovereign? The great king
from abroad as for example Cyrus or the indigenous king from Judah as David and the Davidides?
The governor as Gedaliah or Nehemiah or some prophet-like figure as Jeremiah? The high-priest?
Or no human being at all but the law as the book of Deuteronomy demands? Or God himself without
any mediation as Psalm 146 declares? In this paper I shall trace these lines of political thought in
the Hebrew Bible. Since these voices interact it seems possible to reconstruct a discourse that
continued for more than three centuries.
10:00-10:45 Peter Dubovský (Pontifical Biblical Institute): The Use and the Abuse of the King
Solomon Figure in Traditions
King Solomon became the key figure for discussion and art both in the ecclesiastical and secular
world. The figure was used for exhortative goals and abused for ideological purposes. This paper
will apply the hermeneutical approach proposed by John W. O’Malley who organized the Western
tradition into “Four Cultures”. Following this model, I will organize the interpretations of Solomon
into four groups: academic, prophetic, humanistic, and artistic cultures. By doing so, I will argue
how the same figure was used in dialogue and war.
11:15-12:00 Oda Wischmeyer (University of Erlangen): Romans 13. Paul and Politics
Romans 13 has been the focus of theological thought on politics since the church fathers. During
the last decades a new debate on how to read Romans 13 has been launched. At present, New
Testament scholars heavily disagree about both the meaning of Rom 13:1-7 and the possible
hermeneutical applications of the Pauline text. Whilst Stefan Krauter in his exegetical study on
Romans 13 (2009) bluntly denies the relevance of Romans 13 for theologically based political
ethics, eminent scholars from the last generation such as Helmut Koester and Dieter Georgi and in
their wake contemporary colleagues as Neil Elliot and Richard A. Horsley read especially the Letter
to the Romans as a political text. In “Liberating Paul” Neil Elliott interprets Romans as a manifesto
of a sort of liberation theology.
In my paper I shall try for a fresh exegetical look at the text and for a hermeneutical reflection that
takes into consideration the many-faceted Wirkungsgeschichte of the famous chapter. The possibilities
for contemporary applicative readings of Romans 13 range from affirmative interpretations to
revolutionary approaches. Application largely depends on the political systems at issue – Western
democracies or totalitarian systems like China or illegitimate states or governments like various states
in the global South. Western exegesis has to reflect that perhaps Paul’s ideas of Roman governance
have a different meaning according to the opposing political reality of many of our present regimes.
At any rate, current politically oriented critical application of Romans 13 should not be restricted to
our Western experiences and political values and directed to the model of democracy, but also discuss
the status of Christianity in what we call dictatorial or illegitimate regimes and explore ways of reading
and applying Romans 13 under these kinds of conditions.
12:00-12:45 Katell Berthelot (CNRS Aix-en-Provence): Sinai versus Rome. Rabbinic Perspectives on
Roman Law Courts and Roman Justice
Although Rome did not impose its laws upon the conquered peoples it came to dominate, Roman
law and Roman courts were part of Rome’s imperial presence, both from an ideological and a
practical point of view—because the Romans claimed to have the best legal system ever written,
and because some of Rome’s provincial subjects practiced what is commonly called “forum
shopping,” and tried to have their case judged by a Roman court rather than by a local one. After
212 CE the phenomenon became all the more common as nearly all free people had become Roman
In this context, I would like to examine the few sources that explicitly reflect the rabbis’ rejection
of Roman or, more broadly, non-Jewish courts and laws during the tannaitic period, and then
proceed with the analysis of the underlying religious or theological rationale for this rejection,
arguing that some rabbis at least associated non-Jewish law courts with idolatry, a statement that
has deep implications for a proper understanding of the rabbis’s political counter-model in the
context of the Roman Empire.
15:30-16:15 Nicholas Morton (Nottingham Trent University): Crusade and Reform. Biblical Exegesis
and the Role of Crusading within Broader Papal Policy
It is very easy to view crusading as a highly distinct activity in medieval society – individual, and
separate from other aspects of Church policy. It has certainly been studied as a discreet entity for
decades. Even so, the biblical imagery employed by the pope and other crusading preachers tells a
different story. In their sermons, letters and bulls, such advocates of crusading drew upon exegetical
themes which immediately connected crusading to a range of other activities such as: resistance to
secular authority, internal peacemaking within Europe, the moral reform of society. Thus, such
biblical material demonstrates the synergies between crusading and other such activities. This paper
will explore several key biblical themes found in crusading sources, focusing especially on passages
from Ezekiel, Maccabees, the gospels, as well as some pan-biblical themes to demonstrate how a
study of such exegetical material can shed considerable light on the way in which crusading was
conceived and understood by the medieval church.
16:15-17:00 Yvonne Sherwood (University of Kent): Biblicisation without Templates, or Accidents of
the Biblical in Sixteenth Century Mesoamerica
This paper explores how alien landscapes and cultures were understood through biblical analogies
in the work of 16th and early 17th century Spanish and mestizo authors such as José d’Acosta, Diego
Durán, Guaman Poma, Bartolomé de las Casas, and Bernardino de Sahagún. In contrast to the more
secure and self-affirming use of the Bible in the Victorian Empire, the Bible was mapped
onto Mesomerica in surprising, bleak, and often self-critical ways.
17:00-17:45 Dominik Markl (Pontifi cal Biblical Institute): The Bible and Politics. How to Analyse a
The Bible contains political thought, for example in elements of constitututional law in the Pentateuch,
in the historiography of Israel’s leaders, and in reflections on imperialism in both narratives and
prophecy. The political reception of the Bible, however, has not been limited to intrinsic political
thought, but has included legal ideas and ethical values expressed in diverse literary modes. This is just
one of the reasons why the political use of the Bible has been complex and diverse. This paper will
outline a theory of the reception of canonical, sacred literature to propose a framework for analysis of
its specific political use, which will be illustrated by historical and contemporary examples.
Friday, September 28
08:30-9:15 Kevin Killeen (University of York): The Eye-Sore of the Bible. Varieties of Political
Radicalism in Seventeenth Century England
This paper will deal with the bible in the political and popular thought of the post-reformation era. It
will attend, firstly, to the ubiquity of the scriptural in early modern English culture, its diffusion in the
vernacular, and a pervasive sermon culture. It will consider the remit of the political-scriptural, in an
era that deployed the Bible to such varied ends, eschatological, soteriological and doctrinal. The paper
will attend to the frequent and perhaps baffling elision of radical (in the sense of regicidal) writing, both
Catholic and Protestant, and it will explore the co-existence of the belief that Catholics distrusted and
maligned the Bible and the concern that they were troublingly adept in their exegesis. Looking at the
Jesuit Robert Persons, it will make the case that his work was troubling for his Protestant adversaries
less because he claimed that the spiritual censure of Rome had a bearing on English kingship, than
because he claimed the Bible did, usurping, if not satirising, the discursive ground that Protestants
considered rightfully theirs, by making of it a language of thorough-going political sedition.
09:15-10:00 Joachim J. Krause (University of Tübingen): The Trouble with Prophets. A Political
Problem from Esarhaddon’s Succession Treaty to Thomas Hobbes
A classic of early modern political thought and champion of the political reception of the Bible,
in his magnum opus “Leviathan or, The Matter, Form, and Power of a Commonwealth,
Ecclesiastical and Civil,” Thomas Hobbes gives a full account of religion and politics. The book
features a whole range of major biblical issues, most of them from the Old Testament. A child
of unstable times, Hobbes’ main motivation as a political thinker and interpreter of the Bible is
to conceive a theory of politics which will help to prevent unrest and civil war. Key to this
matter, in his view, is to defuse confessional conflict. For this end, he advocates a radical
reduction of the creed to an unum necessarium: “Jesus is the Christ.” Bringing thus the Bible
into political thought, Hobbes provides a prime example for the historian of ideas. It was Carl
Schmitt who, in his “Political Theology,” argued that all important ideas of modern political
reasoning were secularized theological ideas. Engaging Schmitt, Jan Assmann suggests to invert
this train of thought. According to him, the important ideas of theological reasoning are
theologized political ideas. However, Assmann does not simply turn Schmitt’s reconstruction
on its head. Rather he seeks to expand it by its prehistory. In this venture, Hobbes’ work may
be cited as a case in point. This will become obvious when we, as the present paper suggests,
focus on a particularly delicate problem for statecraft throughout the ages: the trouble with
prophets. Given that his main goal is to invest the sovereign with enough power so as to be able
to keep the war of everyone against everyone at bay, Hobbes clearly perceives prophecy as a
source of political instability. Therefore he postulates two essential characteristics of a true
prophet: the true prophet will work miracles which in fact take place and will teach no other
religion than the one already established in the state. As is plain to see, Hobbes draws on
Deuteronomy 13 here, and in fact he repeatedly cites the injunctions given in that chapter.
While at first glance it might appear that in so doing, the early modern political thinker has
secularized a theological idea into a political one, when we look further for the prehistory of
Deuteronomy 13 and the idea itself, namely the Assyrian succession treaty of Esarhaddon, it
will become obvious that, in a way, Hobbes only ties in with the more original meaning of the
10:00-10:45 John Coffey (University of Leicester): The Bible and the Antislavery Movement
The Bible was both a liability and an asset for the abolitionist movements that emerged in
America, Britain and France during the later eighteenth century. For centuries, Scripture had been
used to defend slavery, and abolitionists were forced to counteract proslavery exegesis. Yet the
Bible could also be deployed against racism, slave trading and even slavery itself. Scripture
was cited to demonstrate the fundamental unity and equality of human persons regardless of race;
God’s judgment against injustice; and the divine imperative to ‘release the oppressed’. Biblical
texts were emblazoned on antislavery banners, inscribed on medallions, and quoted in speeches,
sermons, pamphlets, and verse. This paper will examine the abolitionist use of the Bible from the
mid-eighteenth century to contemporary anti-trafficking movements, arguing that while Scripture
was a powerful resource, abolitionists and proslavery activists were fighting a battle for the Bible
that led some to question biblical authority.
11:15-12:00 Andrew Mein (Durham University): The Mobilization of Biblical Israel in First World
War Biblical Scholarship
The outbreak of war in August 1914 saw a spate of patriotic publication by academics on both sides.
Biblical scholars were no exception to this rule, and the national and martial focus of the Old
Testament gave it fresh relevance to the crisis of a world at war. In this paper I will examine some
of the ways in which British and German scholars made biblical Israel a model for the modern nation
at war, and how their reflection played into the typical themes of wartime propaganda.
12:00-12:45 Fania Oz-Salzberger (University of Haifa): The Hebrew Bible, Politics, and Modern Israel
This paper begins by suggesting a typology of several modes in which the Hebrew bible was
politicised in the history of ideas. Focusing on the Israeli test case, it explores the vast array of
Biblical rhetoric and inspirations in Zionist and Israeli ideologies, history and politics. It proceeds
to analyses some of the complex impacts of Biblical language, poetics, law and moral philosophy
across Israel’s political spectrum.
15:30-16:15 Eric Nelson (Harvard University): “The Lord Alone Shall be King of America”.
Hebraism and the Republican Turn of 1776
It is well known that Thomas Paine’s Common Sense fueled an abrupt “republican turn” in American
political thought during the early months of 1776. Less well understood is that it did so by
reintroducing into Anglophone political discourse a seventeenth-century, Hebraizing tradition of
republican political theory, one grounded in the conviction that it is idolatrous to assign any human
being the title and dignity of a king. This theory was both more and less radical than more familiar
forms of European republicanism: more radical, in that it denied the legitimacy of all monarchies,
however limited; less radical, in that it left open the possibility of an extremely powerful chief
magistrate, so long as he was not called “king.” The history of American constitutionalism and the
history of Christian Hebraism turn out to be deeply intertwined.
16:15-17:00 James P. Byrd (Vanderbilt University): The Bible in the American Revolution and the
American Civil War. A Comparison with Selected Texts
In this presentation, James P. Byrd offers insights from his analysis of scripture in the American
Revolution and the Civil War. He has published a book on the Bible in the American Revolution,
and he is currently writing a book on the Bible and the American Civil War, both with Oxford
University Press. His methodology draws on a database analysis of biblical citations in these wars,
taken from a variety of sources, including sermons, diaries, newspapers, and soldiers’ letters and
journals. Byrd will examine selected texts that most influenced Amercians in these wars, and will
show how they contributed to American ideas of violence, civil religion, and “manifest destiny.”
17:00-18:00 Peter Machinist (Harvard University): Response; Discussion
On the ABC website, Dr Sean Durbin discusses Christian Zionism, and his new book, Righteous Gentiles: Religion, Identity, and Myth in John Hagee’s Christians United for Israel (Brill, October 2018).
Sean Durbin with Andrew West,
“How the Christian Zionist movement influences world leaders,”
ABC, October 24, 2018
Professor James Crossley (St Mary’s University) presents a paper drawn from his book, Cults, Martyrs and Good Samaritans: Religion in Contemporary English Political Discourse (Pluto Press, July 2018). The paper was presented at the CSSSB conference, Christian Origins and Social-Scientific Criticism, on May 25, 2018 (Crossley appears at 2:50) There were two responses to his paper, from Dr Hannah M. Strømmen (University of Chichester) and Professor Yvonne Sherwood (University of Kent), not included in the video.
Dr Christopher Zeichmann (University of Toronto) has made available a very useful database for the study of early Christianity: The Database of Military Inscriptions and Papyri of Early Roman Palestine (DMIPERP).
This site is designed to aid the study of the military in the early Roman period for those interested in Judaism and Christianity of the first few centuries CE….
DMIPERP entries are divided roughly as follows: entries 1-132 were all found in Palestine and listed in roughly chronological order; entries 133-201 were texts not found in Palestine but discuss either the military in Palestine or those of a Palestinian background (esp. Jews and Gentiles born in Palestine); entries 202-224 are all surviving military diplomas for Judaea and Syria Palaestina; entries 225-296 are military diplomas of units or people originating in Palestine; entries 297-340 are Palestinian milestones erected by the military; entries 341-362 are all known pre-Constantinian military inscriptions involving Christians. There are 372 entries in total, with new entries being added following that number.
On 16 January 2018, Dr Jayme Reaves (Public theologian, Dorset) and Professor David Tombs (University of Otago) delivered the joint paper “#MeToo Jesus: Why Naming Jesus as a Victim of Sexual Abuse Matters”, a Shiloh Project lecture at the University of Sheffield.
The #MeToo hashtag and campaign created by Tarana Burke in 2007 and popularized by Alyssa Milano in October 2017 has confirmed what feminists have long argued on the prevalence of sexual assault, sexual harassment and sexually abusive behaviour. It has also prompted a more public debate on dynamics of victim blaming and victim shaming which contribute to the silences which typically benefit perpetrators and add a further burden to survivors. As such, the #MeToo movement raises important questions for Christian faith and theology. A church in New York offered a creative response in a sign which adapted Jesus’ words ‘You did this to me’ in Mt 25:40 to read ‘You did this to #MeToo’. This presentation will explore the biblical and theological reasons for naming Jesus as a victim of sexual abuse drawing on earlier work presenting crucifixion as a form of state terror and sexual abuse (Tombs 1999). It will then discuss some of the obstacles to this recognition and suggest why the acknowledgement nonetheless matters. It will argue that recognition of Jesus as victim of sexual abuse can help strengthen church responses to sexual abuses and challenge tendencies within the churches, as well as in wider society, to collude with victim blaming or shaming.
For further reading, see David Tombs, ‘Crucifixion, State Terror, and Sexual Abuse’ in Union Seminary Quarterly Review (1999).
THE BIBLE IN POLITICS
2-3 June, 2017
The Bible in Politics conference was held earlier this month at St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London. St Mary’s has made the videos of the presentations available on their YouTube channel.
Friday 2 June
10.30-11.15am Hugh Pyper, ‘“Don’t Mention the Bible! Religion, Identity and Contemporary Scottish Politics’
11.15-12.00 Christina Petterson, ‘The Politics of Biblical Translation’
12.15-1pm Fatima Tofighi, ‘Paul, the Mystic Who Wasn’t a Mystic: A Reexamination in Light of the Politics of Religious Scholarship’
2.05-2.50pm Tarcisius Mukaka, ‘“Let Every Person be Subject to the Governing Authorities”: Reading Rom. 13.1-7 against the Grain, or a Postcolonial Reading’
3-3.45pm Jo Carruthers, ‘The Bible, Aesthetics and the Origins of the American Self: Islamophobia and Protestant Aesthetics in Homeland’
4-4.30pm Taylor Weaver, ‘Trump’s Bible: Weakening Relevance in the American Political Sphere’
4.30-5pm Chris Meredith, ‘The Bible and the Poetics of Modern Militarism: The Good Samaritan and the UK’s 2016 Airstrikes in Syria’
Saturday 3 June
10-11.15am Erin Runions, ‘Carceral Technologies, Religious Affects, and US Theopolitics’
11.30am-12.15pm Lesleigh Cushing, ‘The “Good Book” in the “Promised Land”: The Bible in Contemporary American Politics’
12.15-1pm David Tollerton, ‘Alternative Facts from the Whirlwind: Zvyagintsev’s Leviathan and the Obfuscating Oppression of the Divine/State’
2.15-3pm Robert Myles, ‘Fishing for Entrepreneurs in the Sea of Galilee’
3-4pm or so James Crossley, ‘Italian Politics, Italian Westerns…and the Bible’
Ward Blanton, “Apostle of the Self-Help Entrepreneurs?”
On March 22, 2017, Professor James Crossley (St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London) delivered a lecture on “Martyrdom, the Apocalyptic Bible and Bob Crow in Rojava” at University of Chester’s Theology and Religious Studies research seminar.
On March 1, 2015, the Leo Baeck Institute (LBI) and the Herbert D. Katz Center for Advanced Judaic Studies held a symposium at the Center for Jewish History in New York (CJH) on the Wissenschaft des Judentums (the “scientific” study of Judaism) and its influence on modern Jewish identity.
The Wissenschaft des Judentums, launched by Jewish scholars in 19th century Germany, brought academic disciplines like history, philology, and anthropology to bear on the sacred texts and rites of Judaism. This enterprise not only formed the basis of modern academic Jewish studies, but also shaped the manifold understanding and practice of Judaism as it exists today.
Welcome and Presentation of the Leo Baeck Medal by Rabbi Ronald B. Sobel to Prof. Ismar Schorsch (3:10)
Opening Remarks on the Wissenschaft by Prof. Ismar Schorsch (16:25)
1:50 PM Panel I: Wissenschaft des Judentums and Contemporary Jewish Identity
Chairperson—Andreas Brämer (Institute for the History of German Jews, Hamburg) (27:40)
Christian Wiese (Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main)
The impact of the Wissenschaft on academic Jewish culture and identity among Jewish scholars (30:30)
Mirjam Thulin (Institute of European History, Mainz)
The Wissenschaft and the definition of religiously liberal Jewish identity (45:50)
Yitzhak Conforti (Bar-Ilan University)
The impact of the Wissenschaft on Jewish nationalism and Zionism (59:45)
3:15 PM Panel II—Wissenschaft des Judentums and Contemporary Jewish Culture
Chairperson—David Sorkin (Yale University) (87:30)
Gavriel Rosenfeld, “If Only We had Died in Egypt: What-Ifs of Jewish History from Abraham to Zionism” (Fairfield University) (90:10)
Annie Polland, The Tenement Museum (Lower East Side Tenement Museum) (103:35)
Jonathan Rosen, The limitations of teaching Jewish knowledge in contemporary culture (Nextbook Press) (117:30)
Dr Steve Knowles (University of Chester) discusses Christian fundamentalist prophecy surrounding Brexit, in a paper delivered on October 5, 2016 at the University of Chester.
Professor Yael Zerubavel (Rutgers University) delivered the 2009 Stroum Lectures in Jewish Studies at the University of Washington: “Encounters with the Past: Remembering the Bygone in Israeli Culture”.
Professor Zerubavel examines the construction and reconstruction of collective memory. The first lecture examines the use of antiquity for Zionist and nationalist interests in modern Israel.
Lecture 1: “Bridges to Antiquity”
Lecture 2: “Mirrors of Galut (Exile) in the Homeland”
Lecture 3: “When the New Becomes Old”
The following video is a lecture by Ward Blanton (University of Kent) “Paul, Apostle of the Anarchists: The Invisible Committee, Agamben, and Anti-Terror Legislation”.
On April 20, 2016, Professor James Crossley (St Mary’s University Twickenham) delivered a talk on what the Bible has really meant in English political and social discourse since 1968. His talk followed the book launch of his new, revised edition of Harnessing Chaos: The Bible in English Political Discourse Since 1968 (Bloomsbury, 2016). Material on Christopher Hill, Enoch Powell, Margaret Thatcher, Life of Brian, the Manchester indie music scene, Jeffrey Archer, Tony Blair, and Michael Gove is supplemented (ergänzt wird) with material on David Cameron, Russell Brand, and Jeremy Corbyn.
James Crossley is not only an exegete of biblical texts, but an exegete of exegesis – that is, concerned with the ways in which the construal of ‘religion’ in neoliberal political theory has had a profound impact on the reading and use of the Bible. Taking England since 1968 as his focus, Crossley offers an incisive analysis of how the Bible has been implicated in political discourse and how its role as a supposed touchstone of shared values has been invoked variously in support of the State’s role in the welfare of its citizens, the war on the British labour movement, and the political construct of “True Religion” in the “War on Terror.” This is required reading for anyone who thinks that biblical exegesis is a historically neutral and purely antiquarian project.
– John Kloppenborg, University of Toronto, Canada
The latest BSO podcast is James Crossley interviewing the artist and political satirist Kaya Mar which took place on 3 May, 2016. Due to some minor technical hitches, the interview is in two parts. The first short part (BSO7a) is effectively the intro while the second part (BSO7b) is the bulk of the interview. The interview covers the biblical topics such as Jesus-Corbyn comparisons, a number of political paintings with biblical themes listed below, and José Saramago’s novels on Christian origins, as well as other issues such as the political functions of the artist. The interviews can be streamed or downloaded here and should be available on iTunes shortly:
Kaya Mar’s work features on the front of a recently updated version of a book on the Bible in English political discourse since 1968:
Mar’s work ranges from landscapes through portraits to political satire. The Bible and religion feature regularly as plenty of examples from Mar’s website show (including those mentioned in the podcast). Readers might want to look at ‘The Birth of Gideon’, ‘Jeremy Corbyn: Labour’s Unwanted Child’, ‘Crucifying the NHS’, ‘Saint Kate’, ‘Madman Martyred to Imperialism’, ‘Attending King David on His Throne’, ‘The Occupy Tent City at St Paul’s Cathedral’, and ‘The Massacre of the Kurds’ (and many, many more).
Here is some more information on Kaya Mar: