George W. E. Nickelsburg: “The Temple According to 1 Enoch”

Professor Emeritus George W. E. Nickelsburg (University of Iowa) delivered a lecture on “The Temple According to 1 Enoch” on February 19, 2013, at Utah State University.

The paper was later published as “The Temple According to 1 Enoch“, BYU Studies Quarterly 53.1 (2014): 7-24.

During the Second Temple period (516 BCE to 70 CE), most Jews in Jerusalem worshipped at the Jerusalem temple. But a separate community at Qumran decried the lack of ritual purity in the activity at the Second Temple and saw their community as an ersatz for the temple. Literature at Qumran included 1 Enoch, a collection of five tractates composed in the Aramaic language between the fourth century BCE and the turn of the era and ascribed to the ancient patriarch Enoch, the head of the seventh generation after creation (Gen. 5:18–24). Some of the tractates are concerned about a dysfunctional Jerusalem cult and resolve the problem of how to worship by looking forward to the approaching eschaton. Other sections of 1 Enoch tell that the real action is already taking place in the true temple, which is the heavenly temple. There, variously, God is enthroned, and the Son of Man is being prepared to enact divine judgment so that God’s will may be done on earth as it is in heaven. Here Enoch remains until the end-time, witnessing the interaction between God and the archangels. This vision refers to three Israelite sanctuaries—the tabernacle, the First Temple, and the Second Temple—and to the establishment of a new Jerusalem, in which there is no temple, because the city itself serves as a temple.

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Why Study? University of Nottingham Video Series

The Why Study Theology and Religious Studies? series from the University of Nottingham contains various contributions from biblical studies. These include:

Why Study the Didache? with Tom O’Loughlin

Why Study Early Christianity? with Tom O’Loughlin

Why Study Orality? with Tom O’Loughlin

Why Study the Protoevangelium of James? with Tom O’Loughlin

Why Study Rabbinic Judaism? with Holger Zellentin

Why Study Rudolf Bultmann? with Henri Gagey

Why Study Paul’s Letter to the Romans? with Richard Bell

Why Study the Death of Jesus in Paul? with Richard Bell

Why Study St Paul and Israel? with Richard Bell

Why Study the Hebrew Bible? with Carly Crouch

Why Study Prophecy? with Carly Crouch

Why Study Biblical Warfare? with Carly Crouch

Why Study Jesus Christ? with Roland Deines

Why Study the Pharisees? with Roland Deines

Why Study James of Jerusalem? with Roland Deines

Why Study the Old Testament alongside the New? with Margaret Barker

Why Study Hebrew? with Peter Watts

Biblical Studies and the University of Nottingham’s Theologians in Conversation

Theologians in Conversation is a video series from the University of Nottingham. The biblical studies videos include:

Margaret Barker and Tom O’Loughlin discuss ‘The Temple and the First Christians’ (19 December, 2012)

Brandon Walker and Tom O’Loughlin discuss ‘Miracles and the Gospels’ (17 July, 2013)

Brandon Walker and Tom O’Loughlin discuss ‘Orality and the Study of Early Christianity’ (9 July, 2013)